Taiyuan University of Technology
摘要:目的 建立基于人体解剖学结构的精细化头颈部有限元模型，研究不同后碰撞速度下颈部损伤。方法 该模型是以人体头颈部的CT扫描图像为基础，利用Mimics三维骨重建，通过HyperMesh完善颈部三维实体韧带、小关节等组织并进行网格划分。生成的模型包括：头、8节椎骨（C1-T1）、6个椎间盘（包括纤维环、髓核和上下软骨终板）、小关节（包括软骨和关节囊韧带）、韧带、肌肉等结构，最后在有限元后处理软件中完成模型的验证与后碰撞计算。结果 分别对模型进行轴向冲击、前后屈伸和侧屈模拟并与实验数据对比，验证了模型的有效性，然后进行速度为20、40、60、80 km/h后碰撞计算。20 km/h速度下，颈部无损伤出现，在40、60、80 km/h的速度下，最早出现损伤的都是韧带。随着速度的增大，颈部各组织受力不断增大。速度为80 km/h时，颈椎的密质骨、松质骨和纤维环最大应力分别为226.4 、11.5、162.8 MPa，当韧带应变达到极限时，开始出现撕裂。结论 本文所建头颈部有限元模型具有较高的生物仿真度和有效性，可用于交通事故中颈部损伤分析的研究，在一定程度上有助于颈椎损伤的诊断、治疗和预防。
Abstract: Objective To study neck injuries caused by rear impact at different speeds, a fine finite element model of head and neck based on human anatomical structure was established. Methods The model was based on CT scan images of the head and neck of the human body. The Mimics software was used to reconstruct the three-dimensional bone, and the three-dimensional solid ligament, small joints and other tissues of the neck were improved and meshed by HyperMesh. The resulting models include: the head, 8 vertebrae (C1-T1), 6 intervertebral discs (including annulus, nucleus pulposus and upper and lower cartilage endplates), facet joints (including cartilage and joint capsule ligaments), ligaments, muscles, etc. Finally, the model verification and post-collision calculation were completed in the finite element post-processing software. Results The simulation results of axial impact, front and back flexion and lateral flexion of the model were compared with the experimental data to verify the effectiveness of the model. Then rear collision simulation with speeds of 20, 40, 60 and 80 km/h was carried out. At the speed of 20 km/h, there was no damage to the neck. At the speed of 40, 60 and 80 km/h, the ligament was the first to be damaged. As the speed increased, the stress on the tissues of the neck increased continuously. At the speed of 80 km/h, the maximum stresses of the dense bone, cancellous bone and annulus of the cervical vertebra were 226.4, 11.5, and 162.8 MPa, respectively. When the ligament strain reached the limit, tearing began to occur. Conclusions The finite element model of head and neck established in this paper has high bionics and effectiveness, and can be used for the study of neck injury analysis in traffic accidents, which is helpful for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cervical spine injury to a certain extent.